"Peace, commerce and honest friendship with all nations; entangling alliances with none." 
Simple: The United States should be peaceful and trade with other nations but we should not have allies.
"A wise and frugal government which shall restrain men from injuring one another, which shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. This is the sum of good government."
Simple: A good government should only stop men from hurting each other.
"If there be any among us who wish to dissolve the Union or to change its republican form, let them stand undisturbed, as monuments of the safety with which error of opinion may be tolerated where reason is left free to combat it." 
Simple: If anyone wants to get rid of the United State's or wants it to have a different form of government then let them say that without being interrupted. This shows that we tolerate other people's opinions.
"I never consider a difference of opinion in politics, in religion, in philosophy, as cause for withdrawing from a friend." 
Simple: Just because someone had a different opinion in politics, religion, or philosophy does not mean that I should should not be their friend.
"My reading of history convinces me that most bad government results from too much government." 
Simple: Too much government control makes a government bad.
"If a law is unjust, a man is not only right to disobey it, he is obligated to do so." 
Simple: If a law is wrong, not only is it okay for them to disobey it, but they should disobey it.
"The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure."
Simple: For man to be free people must fight for it from time to time.
"No free man shall ever be debarred the use of arms."
Simple: All free men should be allowed to own guns.